Lauca National Park is located in Chile's far north, in the Andean range. It encompasses an area of 1,379 km² of altiplano and mountains, the latter consisting mainly of enormous volcanoes. Las Vicuñas National Reserve is its neighbour to the south. Both protected areas, along with Salar de Surire Natural Monument, form Lauca Biosphere Reserve. The park borders Sajama National Park in Bolivia.
One of the main attractions of the park is the small lacustrine area formed by Chungará and Cotacotani lakes, which lies at the foothills of the Nevados de Payachata. Other majestic volcanoes forming part of the national park are the Guallatiri and the Acotango. Lauca features include archaeological sites, lava fields and volcanic calderas. Within the park is located the town of Parinacota with its colonial church.
The headwaters of Lauca River are also found within the park and bordering it to the west is Lluta River.
The international Route CH-11 passes through this protected area. It runs from the Pan-American Highway in the vicinity of Arica to Tambo Quemado Pass and provides the main access to the park.